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Department of Horticultural Science and Landscape Architecture, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
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Abstract
In order to investigate the effect of magnetized saline water on Meadow sage, a factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design with three replications was conducted in greenhouse conditions in 2021 at the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Based on the findings, the salinity (0, 30, and 90 mM of sodium chloride, respectively equivalent to electrical conductivity values of 0, 2.5, 5.25, and 7.88 dS/m) caused a decrease in leaf area, fresh weight of shoot, dry weight of shoot, chlorophyll content and increased specific leaf weight, total phenol, and antioxidant activity. The application of magnetic water (non-magnetic water, 0.6 Tesla half an hour, 0.6 Tesla once, 0.3 Tesla half an hour, and 0.3 Tesla once) reduced the effects of salinity stress on the studied traits. In general, the use of magnetic water increased the fresh weight of the shoot by 34%, the dry weight of the shoot by 45%, the leaf area by 20%, chlorophyll b by 20%, chlorophyll a by 55%, total chlorophyll by 47%, total phenolics by 158%, and antioxidant activity by 12%. According to the obtained results, as the intensity and duration of saltwater magnetization increase, the ability of magnetized water to reduce the destructive effects of salinity increases. The results showed that at high salinity levels, the field intensity of 0.6 Tesla half an hour increases the plant's tolerance to salinity stress. Saltwater magnetization technology might be a promising technique in agriculture, which, of course, needs more extensive studies.

Background and Objective: Plants may experience various stresses during their growth and development. Among these, salinity stress is one of the most important factors limiting plant growth. Salinity affects plant growth due to increased soil osmotic pressure and nutritional disorders and reduces plants' ability to access water (2). Due to the negative effects of salinity stress on plants, different solutions such as maintaining the quantity and quality of irrigation water have been proposed. One of the new methods for improving the irrigation efficiency is the passage of irrigation water through a magnetic field. By crossing water through a magnetic field, its physical and chemical properties might be improved (1). This study aimed to investigate the effect of magnetic saline water on the growth and physiological traits of Salvia virgata.

Methods: This study was conducted in 2021 in the research greenhouse of the Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad as a factorial in a completely randomized design with three replications. Experimental treatments included magnetic water intensities at five levels (non-magnetic water, 0.6 Tesla half an hour, 0.6 Tesla once passed, 0.3 Tesla half an hour, and 0.3 Tesla once passed) and four salinity levels (0, 30, 60, and 90 mM NaCl). In early February, seedlings were planted in a tray with cocopeat and perlite (1:2 volumetric ratio). Then four seedlings were transferred to each pot in the four-leaf stage. Salinity and magnetic water treatments were done in such a way that the water content of the pot reaches the container capacity. After 40 days of applying the treatments, the traits were measured. The studied traits included: leaf area per plant, leaf specific weight, fresh weight of shoot, dry weight of shoot, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity, and total phenol.

Results: The mean comparison results showed that with the increase in salinity, the biomass of shoot and leaf surface decreased and the use of magnetic water improved the traits. In addition, salinity affected the content of chlorophyll, total phenol, and antioxidant activity. The use of magnetic water improved growth traits in Salvia virgata under NaCl stress. Based on the findings, the magnetic water reduced the destructive effects of salinity on the studied traits. The application of magnetic water with two intensities of 0.6 and 0.3 Tesla for half an hour was more effective than other intensities in reducing the stress effects on the growth traits in all three salinity levels. Also, magnetic water with an intensity of 0.3 Tesla for half an hour and one pass at salinity levels of 30 and 60 mM had a greater influence in reducing the effects of salinity on the chlorophyll content, total phenol, and antioxidant activity. In general, the greater the intensity and duration of magnetization of saline irrigation water, the greater was the ability of magnetic water to reduce the destructive effects of salinity stress.

Conclusions: Based on the results, the positive effect of magnetic water under salinity stress on improving developmental and physiological traits of Salvia virgata Jacq. was observed in this study. Negative effects of salinity on plant growth and physiological characteristics were also observed. The application of magnetic water had different effects on the studied traits. In most cases, intensities of 0.6 and 0.3 Tesla half an hour later were the most effective intensities to reduce the negative effects of salinity stress on sage. In addition, magnetic water helped plants resist salinity stress and reduce the harmful effects of salinity. It is concluded that the use of magnetic water can reduce the harmful effects of salinity and also improve the yield of Salvia virgata by improving growth traits.

References:
1. Machado, R.M.A., Serralheiro, R.P., 2017. Soil salinity: Effect on vegetable crop growth. Management practices to prevent and mitigate soil salinization. Horticulture 30(2): 113.
2. Mohammadian, M., Fatahi, R.A., Nouri Emamzadei, M.R., 2016. Investigation the effect of magnetic salt water on yield and yield components of green pepper. Irrigation Sciences and Engineering 39(1): 121130. (In Persian with English abstract)


 
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Plant water relations
Received: 2022/05/4 | Accepted: 2023/02/22 | Published: 2023/02/26

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