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Department of Horticultural Science and Landscape Architecture, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
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Abstract
To investigate the effect of ten species of mycorrhizal fungi belonging to seven different genera (Racocetra, Rhizophagus, Claroideoglomus, Funneliformis, Diversispora, Acaulospora and Gigaspora) on some growth and biochemical traits of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-groecum), a pot experiment based on a completely randomized design was conducted in the research greenhouse of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. The changes of biomass, number and length of pods, weight of 1000 seeds, photosynthetic pigments, phenolic compounds, soluble carbohydrates, total protein, and antioxidant capacity in fenugreek plants in response to mycorrhizal inoculation were studied. The results of variance analysis of the data showed that the effect of mycorrhizal fungi on all studied traits was significant at the probability level of 1%. Based on the findings, the response of fenugreek plant to inoculation with different species of mycorrhizal fungi was variable. Inoculation with suitable species of mycorrhizal fungi through improving the growth condition and biochemical traits of treated plants increased the fenugreek growth based on plant fresh and dry weights. In the present study, mycorrhizal species, especially R. castanea, A. langula, R. intraradicese, and G. margarita enhanced the amount of chlorophyll and the activities of antioxidant enzymes of inoculated fenugreek plant compared to the control, which was accompanied by increasing the plant growth in terms of fresh and dry weights in these treatments. According to the obtained results, inoculation of fenugreek plant with C. claroideum, R. castanea, A. langula, G. margarita, R. fasciculatus, and F. caledonium fungi can be suggested as a suitable alternative for chemical fertilizers to increase the yield of this plant.

Background and Objective: In sustainable agriculture, organic and low input cultivation systems are the most important factors and the application of biofertilizers to reduce chemical fertilizers usage is the main step (1). Biofertilizers can improve physical, chemical and biological properties of soil and with minimum negative effects on the environment, could increase soil fertility (2). The application of useful microorganisms such as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi as an important biofertilizer plays a key role in water and nutrient supply for plants (3). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect inoculation with different mycorrhizal species on the growth and biochemical traits of fenugreek.

Methods: A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the inoculation effect of different species of mycorrhizal fungi on the growth, physiological and biochemical characteristics of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graceum) based on a completely randomized design with three replications in the research greenhouse of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during 2020-2021. The treatments included 10 species of mycorrhizal fungi Glomus mosseae, Glomus etunicatum, Glomus claroideum, Glomus caledonium, Glomus interaradices, Glomus fasiculatum, Acaulospora langula, Scutellospora castanea, Glomus versiforme, Gigaspora margarit and non-inoculation (control). The studied traits included plant fresh and dry weights, number of pods, 1000-seeds weight, photosynthesis pigments, soluble carbohydrate, total phenol, flavonoids, total protein, and antioxidant activity. Minitab17 software was used to analyze the data and the mean comparison was performed based on Bonferoni test at 1% probability level.

Results: The results of variance analysis showed that the effect of mycorrhizal fungi on all studied traits was significant at the 1% probability level. According to the obtained results, the response of fenugreek to inoculation depended on the mycorrhizal fungi species. Among the studied mycorrhizal species, the S. castanea had the greatest effect on improving the plant biomass and photosynthesis pigments. The highest pod number and 1000-seeds weight were obtained in the plants inoculated with G. claroideum. In the plants inoculated with F. mosseae and C. claroideum, the total phenolic compounds were higher than in the other treatments. Also, the highest activities of guaiacol peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase were recorded in the plants treated with R. fasciculatus.

Conclusions: Inoculation with appropriate species of mycorrhizal fungi could effectively increase the growth and biomass of fenugreek by improving the plant physiological traits. According to the results of this study, inoculation of fenugreek with C. claroideum, R. castanea, A. langula, G. margarita, R. fasciculatus, and F. caledonium can be suggested as a suitable alternative for chemical fertilizers to increase the yield of fenugreek under the greenhouse conditions.

References:
1. Rahimi, A., Dovlati, B., Amirnia, R., Heydarzade, S., 2019. Effect of application of mycorrhizal fungus and Azotobacter on physiological characteristics of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. under water stress conditions. Iranian Journal of Plant Biology 11(4): 1-18. (In Persian with English abstract)
2. Rezazadeh Roghani, Sh., Aminian, R., Maffakheri, S., Asghari, B., 2019. The effect of biological fertilizers on the morphological traits of fenugreek (Terigonella foenum.graecum) in different humidity conditions. Horticultural Plant Nutrition 2(1): 145-163. (In Persian with English abstract)
3. Siavash Moghadam, S., Rahimi, A., Heydarzadeh, S., Moradzadeh, S., Hasanlu, M., 2017. The effect of mycorrhizal fungus symbiosis on the yield and biochemical characteristics of the medicinal plant fenugreek. Biotechnology of Medicinal Plants 3(1): 40-52. (In Persian with English abstract)
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Plant growth promoting microrganisms in the rhizosphere
Received: 2022/12/4 | Accepted: 2023/03/30 | Published: 2023/06/18

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