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Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.
Abstract:   (859 Views)
Abstract
Due to the limitations of water resources and poor soil quality, the use of modern and high-quality solutions is necessary to produce agricultural products with better quality. One of the effective methods for achieving this goal is the production and cultivation of plants by hydroponic methods. This study was conducted as a factorial in a completely randomized design with the aim of investigating the effect of hydroponic cultivation systems [drip system and deep flow technology (DFT)] as the first factor on the quality and yield of two strawberry cultivars (Albion, Sabrina) as the second factor with four replications. The results showed that Sabrina had the highest fruit length and width in the drip system. Also, the highest fruit weight and yield were observed in the Sabrina cultivar under the drip irrigation system. The highest titratable acidity content was observed in Sabrina cultivar under the drip system and the highest contents of total soluble solids, total phenol and total flavonoid were recorded in the DFT system. Besides, the highest total anthocyanin content was revealed in the Albion cultivar under the drip system. In general, the results of the present study showed that most of the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of strawberry fruits were affected by the cultivation system type and the yield and fruit quality of strawberries were higher in the drip system compared to the DFT system. It can be also concluded that Sabrina had the highest biochemical properties under the drip system.

Background and Objective: By adjusting the concentration of the nutrient solution, hydroponic cultivation allows farmers to control and regulate the nutrients available to the plant (Keutgen and Pawelzik, 2007). In hydroponic culture systems (water culture), plants are grown in an environment other than soil in order to reach the maximum density of cultivation, improve performance, save water and nutrients, and reduce soil pollution (Rounaghi and Maftoon, 2006). Samec et al. (2016) reported that the variety had a significant effect on the quality characteristics of strawberries and Albion cultivar had the highest total soluble solids (TSS) and titratable acidity (TA) contents. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cultivation system type on the quality and yield of two strawberry cultivars (Sabrina and Albion) grown in hydroponic.

Methods: Sabrina and Albion strawberry transplants were obtained from a commercial greenhouse located in Urmia city and kept for 240 hours in a cold room (for chilling) at a temperature of 4 °C. Some traits such as length, width, weight and yield of fruits, pH, TSS, TA, antioxidant activity, total phenol, flavonoid and anthocyanin contents were evaluated. To evaluate total phenol, the method of Du et al. (2009) was performed with a slight modification. The method of Shin et al. (2014) with a slight modification was followed to measure the total flavonoid. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated using the DPPH free radical method.

Results: The results showed that the cultivation system type affected the length, width, weight and yield of fruits. Based on the results of variance analysis, the cultivation system had a significant effect on total phenol, total flavonoid and anthocyanin contents at p < 0.05. The results showed that Sabrina had the highest fruit length and width in the drip system. Also, the highest fruit weight and yield were observed in the Sabrina cultivar under the drip irrigation system. The highest titratable acidity content was observed in Sabrina cultivar under the drip system and the highest contents of total soluble solids, total phenol and total flavonoid were recorded in the DFT system. Besides, the highest total anthocyanin content was revealed in the Albion cultivar under the drip system.

Conclusions: The results showed that the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of strawberry fruits were affected by the type of cultivar and cultivation system. Tthe highest amount of strawberry fruit quantitative index (i.e., fruit length, width, weight and yield) was observed in the cultivar Sabrina grown under the drip system. In general, the obtained results showed that most of the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of strawberry fruit were affected by the cultivation system and Sabrina had the highest biochemical properties under the drip system.

References:
1. Du, G., Li, M., Ma, F., Liang, D., 2009. Antioxidant capacity and the relationship with polyphenol and vitamin C in Actinidia fruits. Food Chem. 113(2), 557562.
2. Keutgen, A.J., Pawelzik, E., 2007. Cultivar-dependent cell walls modification of strawberry fruit under NaCl salinity stress. J. Agr. Food Chem. 55(18), 75807585. ‏
3. Rounaghi, A., Maftoon, M., 2006. Hydroponic, First ed., Shiraz University Publishing Center, Shiraz.
4. Šamec, D., Maretić, M., Lugarić, I., Mešić, A., Salopek-Sondi, B., Duralija, B., 2016. Assessment of the differences in the physical, chemical and phytochemical properties of four strawberry cultivars using principal component analysis. Food Chem. 194, 828834.
5. Shin, S.W., Ghimeray, A.K., Park, C.H., 2014. Investigation of total phenolic, total flavonoid, antioxidant and allyl isothiocyanate content in the different organs of Wasabi japonica grown in an organic system. Afr. J. Tradit. Complement. Altern. Med. 3(11), 3845.
 
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Soil (growth medium) and plant relations in greenhouse culture
Received: 2023/04/22 | Accepted: 2023/07/1 | Published: 2023/12/19

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