Volume 14, Issue 3 (10-2023)                   2023, 14(3): 1-19 | Back to browse issues page


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Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad.
Abstract:   (895 Views)
Abstract
Phosphorus deficiency and drought stress are limiting factors in wheat yield. Drought stress has different effects on the uptake, utilization and use efficiency of soil phosphorus in wheat cultivars. The purpose of this study is to investigate the response of growth and development, uptake and efficiency of phosphorus in Sirvan and Sivand wheat cultivars at three moisture stress levels of 50, 70 and 95% of soil field capacity (FC) and two phosphorus levels of 0 and 25 mg kg-1. The results showed that addition of phosphorus increased shoot dry weight, phosphorus utilization efficiency, root length and area, and soluble sugars by 42, 61, 84, 47, and 66%, respectively, and decreased electrolyte leakage by 64% under stress conditions of 50%FC. Besides, the phosphorus application of 25 mg kg-1 under drought stress conditions of 50%FC increased the shoot dry weight of the Sirvan variety by 75% compared to the Sivand variety. This increase can be due to the effect of phosphorus on metabolic activities inside the plant, which has led to an increase in root growth, soluble sugar production and cell wall resistance, and a decrease in electrolyte leakage. Therefore, the positive changes observed in different traits and indices due to the use of phosphorus increased the resistance of the Sirvan cultivar compared to Sivand under drought stress conditions. According to the results of phosphorus efficiency and some root morphological and physiobiochemical characteristics, Sirvan cultivar showed a good response to phosphorus fertilizer in modulating the effect of drought stress.

Background and Objective: Drought is one of the most widespread abiotic stresses which has a negative effect on the growth and yield of plants in most areas of the world. Drought stress reduces plant yield by decreasing the uptake of water and nutrients. The arid and semi-arid climate conditions of Iran have caused many problems in the production of plants, including wheat (Triticum aesivum L.). Phosphorus, as one of the essential nutritional elements for plants, can be effective in alleviating drought stress (Kang et al., 2014). In recent years, the use of plants and cultivars efficient in uptake nutrients, including phosphorus, as an appropriate strategy to increase crop yield in water-limited environments has been the focus of researchers. Phosphorous efficient cultivars are important due to their special physiological and morphological characteristics in drought stress conditions (Neji et al., 2019). Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to the mechanism of efficient cultivars against drought stress for accurate fertilizer recommendations.

Methods: To evaluate Sirvan and Sivand wheat cultivars, in phosphorus uptake and efficiency and growth and development at different levels of moisture stress and phosphorus, a factorial experiment was performed based on a completely randomized design with three factors and three replications during the vegetative growth period in the greenhouse. The factors included phosphorus from Ca(HPO4)·H2O (0, and 25 mg P kg soil-1), three moisture regimes including 50, 70 and 95% of field capacity (FC) and two spring wheat varieties (Triticum aesivum L.) of Sivand as a drought-sensitive variety and Sirvan as a drought-resistant variety.

Results: According to the results, it was observed that the application of phosphorus (25 mg kg-1) was effective on the growth and development of the studied wheat cultivars under non-stress and drought stress conditions. Application of phosphorus increased shoot dry weight, phosphorus utilization efficiency, root length and area, and soluble sugars by 42, 61, 84, 47, and 66%, respectively, and decreased electrolyte leakage by 64% under drought stress conditions of 50%FC. Also, the phosphorus application of 25 mg kg-1 under drought stress conditions of 50%FC increased the shoot dry weight of Sirvan variety by 75% compared to Sivand variety. This finding can be due to higher root growth and its characteristics (root area and cumulative length), uptake and utilization of soil phosphorus and physiobiochemical characteristics in Sirvan variety. The application of phosphorus with a positive effect on the growth and development of the Sirvan variety in the vegetative growth stage made it adapt to drought stress conditions.

Conclusions: The application of phosphorus at the level of 25 mg kg-1 under drought stress conditions increased the shoot dry weight, root area and length, phosphorus uptake and efficiency, and soluble sugars and decreased electrolyte leakage. These changes were more noticeable in Sirvan variety. The use efficiency of phosphorus in the stages of vegetative growth can play an important role in determining the resistance of cultivars to drought stress. It is considered a good feature for a suitable fertilizer recommendation in order to improve the yield of agricultural products. Also, using the appropriate level of phosphorus can play an effective role in the efficiency of drought-resistant cultivars.

References:
1. Kang, L.y., Yue, S.C., Li, S.Q., 2014. Effects of phosphorus application in different soil layers on root growth, yield, and water-use efficiency of winter wheat grown under semi-arid conditions. J. Integr. Agric. 13(9), 2028–2039. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2095-3119(14)60751-6.
2. Neji, M., Kouas, S., Gandour, M., Aydi, S., Abdelly, C., 2019. Genetic variability of morpho-physiological response to phosphorus deficiency in Tunisian populations of Brachypodium hybridum. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 143, 246–256. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2019.09.006.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Plant growth under stressful conditions
Received: 2023/05/7 | Accepted: 2023/07/1 | Published: 2023/12/19

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